Rules for the Use of the Ritual Robe of the Three Grottoes

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The 1-volume Rules for the Use of the Ritual Robe of the Three Grottoes ( 《三洞法服科戒文》 Sandong Fafu Kejie Wen ) by Zhang Wanfu of Tang records Daoist regulations about clothes and adornments. It states that Daoist clothes are like appearances of the body. They are divided into nine classes according to different levels and rituals. Daoists should wear clothes in obedience to the commandments and registers of Three Grottos. The Daoist hat, symbolic of contemplation, remind a Daoist to contemplate on his body and cut off desires and pacify his mind sincerely as to attain Daoist fruit. Moreover, he should contemplate on outer materials as not being personal possessions, so as to cut off desires. A Daoist should wear his clothes neatly and keep them unblemished. It postulates forty-six taboos, which can lead to punishments if broken. Collected in the Subsection of Commandments, Pervasive Divinity Section of the Daoist Canon of the Zhengtong Era, the book is important for the study of the Daoist system for clothes in Tang Dynasty.