Temple Regulations

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Religious Practise
Morning and Evening Rites
Refining the Vital Breath
Wandering About and Seeking Masters
Religious Discipline
Commandments of the Orthodox Oneness Sect
Commandments of the Complete Perfection Sect
Temple Regulations
Talismans, Registers, and Magic Skills
Divine Incantations
Finger Gestures
Pacing the Big Dipper
Magical Transformation Skills
Praying for Happiness and Offering Sacrifice
Summoning Spirits for Interrogation
Healing Diseases
Expelling the God of Plague
Names of the Three Fasts
Great Ritual Offerings to the Overarching Heaven
Lantern Rituals for the Destruction of Hell
Rituals of Purification and of Sacrifice to the Ancestral Souls
Rituals of Purification and Salvation
Rituals of Scattering Flowers and Communicating with Spirits through Lanterns
Rituals for Sending Petitions to the Heavens
Ceremonial Altars
Altars for Fasts
Altars for Ritual Offerings
Altars for Commandments
The Ancestral Altar of All Skills
Daoist Headdresses and Dress
Ritual Implements
Wooden Fish
Commandment Plaques
S-shaped Ornamental Objects
Magical Seals
Magical Staffs
Magical Swords
Shallow Pans
Inverted Bells
Horsetail Whisks
Large Cymbals
Ritual Specialists
High Priest
Cheif Cantor
Inspector of Fasts
Incense Attendant
Lantern Attendant
Scripture Attendant
Ceremonies to Celebrate the Birth of Spirits
Assemblies to Entice Spirits
Pilgrimage Times and Temple Fairs

The Sources of the Monastic Rules of Temples

The Monastic Rules of Daoist temples refer to all the regulations and rules made for temples on the basis of Daoist religious discipline and commandments. Such monastic rules and regulations provide the ways, methods, and degrees of punishment if the Daoists living in temples committed offences. There were no such rules initially. Those in existence were mostly formulated in the large temples of the Complete Perfection Tradition.

The Chief Monastic Rules in Existence

Nowadays there exist chiefly the monastic rules of Zhang Liang Temple in Sanxi province, promulgated in the 22d year of Daoguang in the Qing Dynasty (1842), and the List of Monastic Rules ( 清規榜 Qinggui Bang ) of the White Cloud Temple in Beijing, promulgated in the 6th year of Xianfeng (1856). Both of them are derivations and developments of the Monastic Rules of the Complete Perfection Tradition and of the List of Punishments of Imperial Sovereign Chongyang as the Founder of the Complete Perfection Tradition, except that they are more concrete and specific. What is more, they have more varieties and distinctions as far as the methods and the degree of seriousness were concerned. In addition to those prescribed in the Monastic Rules of the Complete Perfection Tradition, there are more rules and regulations for Daoists. In the monastic rules of the White Cloud Temple, there were such severe measures as being burned to death in public. It was thought that if one broke laws, raped women, stole, or insulted Daoism, he should be punished. In the monastic rules of Zhang Liang Temple, offenders could have their eyebrows burned off, their collar taken away, or they could be beaten severely, which were common local measures of punishment. It was said that those violating laws or committing adultery, robbery or killing would be beaten 40 times and forced out of the temple after having their eyebrows burned off. Most Daoist temples today have resumed all kinds of monastic rules to strengthen their system of administration. But their form and content have become habitual conventions for Daoists today. Besides, they should pass through democratic discussion by all the Daoists in temples before they are carried out.