Daoism among the Tujia Ethnic Group
|Daoism in Minority Regions|
|Tujia Ethnic Group Maonan minority |
Daoism has entered Tujia culture in modern times. When Tujia masters --"local teachers" manage large religious activities, they will get the Supreme Venerable Sovereign's authorization first. Then they summon their spiritual soldiers and generals. The duty of the altar master( 掌壇法師 Zhangtan Faishi ) is to submit to the Three Purities and the Jade Emperor to request the dispatching of soldiers to catch evil spirits and demons. The influence of Daoist talismans and registers is evident here. When a Tujia master conducts the "exorcising wish" ( 儺願 Nuoyuan ), they will hang up "the Picture of Reverend the Three Purites" ( 三清天尊圖 Sanqing Tianzun Tu ). Pictures of the Three Purities are also hung when conducting services to mourn the dead. Other Daoist gods that are worshipped include the Great Emperor of the Three Origins, as well as immortals. Sentences like "the eternal existence of Daoism, I act under the orders of the Supreme Venerable Sovereign" occur in their incantations. Daoism's influence is quite clear here.
Communitarian Daoists, traditionally referred to as "masters", are also present. Their religious activities belong to folk Daoism combined with elements from Buddhism and the native Tujia religion. Some of the priests have finished apprenticeship and some have not. Those who have finished apprenticeship have to undergo technique-transmitting rituals in order to be qualified for independent services and important rituals like managing funerals, making offerings and sacrifices, and mourning the dead, etc. Those who have not finished apprenticeship can only guard the earth, connect dragons' ridges, help the litany, chase ghosts, and pacify houses, etc.